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Glossary beginning with C

A glossary of terms.
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C

Cancer search for term

A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth.

Cancer Drugs Fund search for term

The Cancer Drugs Fund was established in order to provide a means by which National Health Service (NHS) patients in England could get cancer drugs that are not routinely available on the NHS.

CBC search for term

The number of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets in the patient's sample of blood is determined.

CCyR search for term

Abbreviation of complete cytogenetic response when testing shows Ph+ cells have fallen below 1.5% in the marrow.

CDF search for term

The Cancer Drugs Fund was established in order to provide a means by which National Health Service (NHS) patients in England could get cancer drugs that are not routinely available on the NHS.

Centomere search for term

The central region of a chromosome separating it into a short arm (p- for petite) and a long arm (q- the next letter after p).

CHR search for term

Complete haematologic response; where Ph+ cells can no longer be detected in the peripheral blood.

Chromosome search for term

DNA is organized into long strands forming structures called chromosomes which reside in the nucleus of a cell. In the process of cell divison chromosomes duplicate providing each cell with its own complete set

Chronic Phase search for term

CML is characterized by three phases or stages. The first stage is called the Chronic Phase. The vast majority of patients (85% to 90%) are diagnosed while in the Chronic Phase. Very often, individuals in the Chronic Phase have no or few symptoms and are diagnosed through a routine blood test. Some people in the Chronic Phase experience symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, feeling of fullness or pain in the upper left side of the abdomen (due to enlarged spleen), weight loss, night sweats and anemia. Typical features of Chronic Phase are: elevated white blood cell (WBC) count; normal or high platelet count; increased basophil count; sometimes increased eosinophil count; and, most importantly, fewer than 15% myeloblasts. In the Chronic Phase, as in all three phases of CML, the marrow is usually hypercellular at diagnosis.

With modern TKI treatment, the vast majority of treated patients do not progress beyond the Chronic Phase.

Clonal evolution search for term

Abnormal changes within the chromosome, often indicative of disease progression.

CML search for term

Chronic myeloid leukaemia, also known as chronic myelogeous leukaemia: a blood cancer arising from an acquired genetic abnormality in a progenitor cell (stem cell) which causes certain kinds of white cells to increase to abnormal levels in the marrow.

Conventional Cytogenetics search for term

Analysis by microscope of individual cells for the presence or absence of abnormal chromosomes (for example, the Philadelphia Chromsome). The process is very time consuming and is usually conducted on 20 marrow metaphase or dividing cells.

Conversion Factor search for term

The molecular response value determined by a particular (local) lab is determined to allow the labs qRT-PCR results to be converted to the International Standard or Scale (I.S.).

Cytogenetic Relapse search for term

An increase in the percentage above 1% of Ph+ cells in the blood and/or marrow.

Cytogenetic Response search for term

A reduction in the number of Ph+ cells evident in the blood and/or marrow.

Cytoplasm search for term

Liquid composed of water, salts and organic molecules that fills the inside of a cell.

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